Water management in developing countries

Hygiene education Water Aid https://www.wateraid.org the worldwide charity states:-
“the simple act of washing hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhoeal diseases by a third”.

Greater than 2.5 billion people at risk of diarrheal disease, 2.5 Million mortality rate annually with 1.5 million deaths occurring in children under 6. The Accessible Market for the developing countries is estimated at $10,000,000 over three years of sales.

Countries at High Risk for Diarrhoeal Disease (from CDC, 2007)


Top ten Countries for Diarreahoeal Death 2002

In terms of morbidity, mortality and economic cost, diarrheal disease is one of the most important issues in the world today

• Diarrhoeal disease is currently the most common illness in the world.1
• Globally, there are about two billion cases of diarrhoeal disease every year.2
• Diarrhoeal disease kills 1.5 million children every year.3
• Year round transmission of Diarrhoeal Diseases is documented in regions of Indonesia, Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, China, Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria and India
• Diarrhoea is a leading cause of malnutrition in children under five year old.4

1. WHO (2008). The World Health Report 2008: Primary HealthCrae-Now More than Ever.
2. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/index.html
3. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/index.html
4. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/index.html


Deaths due to diarrheal per 100 000 children younger than 5 years

Diarrhoeal diseases affect people of all ages throughout the world, children, WHO sites diarrhoeal disease as the second most common cause of death of children under five accounting for approximately 1.5 million deaths per year. More than 80% of these deaths occur in Africa and South East Asia.

1. https://cherg.org/main.html


Diarrhoea kills more children than malaria, measles, and AIDS combined

Diarrhea kills 2.2 million people globally each year, mostly children in developing countries (WHO, 2012).

Proportional distribution of cause-specific deaths among children under five years of age, 2004 (excluding neonatal deaths)

References: 1.UNICEF/WHO, Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done, 2009 Most of the pathogenic organisms that cause Diarrhoeal Disease and all the pathogens that are known to be major causes of Diarrhoea are transmitted primarily or exclusively by the faecal–oral route. Faecal oral transmission may be water borne, food borne, or direct transmission which implies an array of other faeces oral routes such as via fingers, or fomites (a dish, toy, book, doorknob, or clothing), or dirt which may be ingested by young children.


Prevention and treatment diarrhoea:

Key measures to prevent diarrhoea include:

Water Aid https://www.wateraid.org the worldwide charity states,

“To gain the full benefits of safe water and sanitation communities also need to know about the links between diseases and unsafe hygiene practices. Hygiene education focuses on issues such as personal hygiene”

Common diseases related to poor water, sanitation and unsafe hygiene practices are:

Cholera, hepatitis A, dysentery, giardiasis, polio, e-coli, diarrhoea, typhoid, salmonella food poisoning, bilharzia, guinea worm, intestinal parasites like hookworm and tapeworm, and trachoma.

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Disaster zones

Where water is cut-off, Access to fresh water is unavailable and limited hygiene services exist. The SpaTap overcomes all of this, providing the solution to the hand washing with waste reduction due to the rationed and controllable water flow and SpaTap limits contamination as the bottles are closed and secure. This in turn increases the longevity of the bottles, through maintaining integrity. Families can take ownership of their own tap and become responsible for its cleanliness, location and water level and temperature.